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TROL: Transparency Regulation of Oxygen in Lakes (Phase 1)

For Phase 1 of the TROL project, we are using existing high-frequency data of water temperature and dissolved oxygen measured at the surface and bottom of lakes. Phase 1 TROL data were collected from 13 sites across 12 unique lakes, all in the Northern Hemisphere. We plan to use these data and a space for time approach to understand how the relative duration of spring mixing vs. summer stratification are responding to the decreased duration of ice cover occurring under climate warming. If the summer stratified period is becoming longer, we predict severe implications for deepwater oxygen during summertime, as oxygen depletion will occur for a longer time frame. If spring mixing periods are extending, we predict there will be minimal or no change in deepwater oxygen depletion. We can use the high-frequency dissolved oxygen data collected here to determine if the duration of the spring mixing vs. summer stratified period affects (1) the occurrence of hypoxic or anoxic conditions, (2) the onset and duration of hypoxic or anoxic conditions, and (3) the severity during summer stratification. Additionally, the high-frequency nature of these data provides an exceptional opportunity to assess potential metrics to estimate the phenological timing of key physical events in dimictic lakes. Previously, high-frequency temperature data from the surface and bottom of lakes was used to accurately estimate the timing of ice cover across a suite of lakes (Pierson et al. 2011. Limnology & Oceanography Methods 9: 74-83). Here, we plan to expand on these methods in two key ways by adding estimates of onset of summer stratification and fall mixing in addition to ice on and ice off, and by incorporating high-frequency dissolved oxygen data as a potential response variable to changes in the timing and duration of these events.

2017-11-17 to 2018-08-01
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